The misguidedness of morality deprives from its other-directedness and its presumed dominance over other types of personal evaluation. The other-directed focus of morality can be shown in two ways. On the one hand, moralists concentrate too much on judging other people (instead of embodying excellence themselves). They arrive after an action has already occurred to assess its rightness—often seeking reasons to condemn rather than to praise. Only rarely do moralists investigate the conditions that make moral excellence possible; instead they focus on failures and blame. Moreover, the moral judge tends to condemn the unique and the unusual because moral values derive from group norms. This judgmentalism unleashes the moralist’s urge to punish, but Nietzsche is highly skeptical of the effectiveness and presuppositions of punishment. Moral “judges” derive from angry fathers, angry Gods, or wrathful principles—all demanding atonement and fostering guilt. Such judgmentalism is often rooted in hatred of life’s natural drives or in resentment of other people’s advantages. For Nietzsche, such motives are ethically corrupt; they pollute the outcomes of moral judgments, making the immoral.
—William R. Schroeder, Continental Philosophy: A Critical Approach (via crematedadolescent)
Whatsoever is, is in God, and without God nothing can be, or be conceived.
—Baruch Spinoza (via philosophy-quotes)
It is an hypothesis that the sun will rise tomorrow: and this means that we do not know whether it will rise.
—Ludwig Wittgenstein (via philosophy-quotes)
It appears at first that men in that state, lacking among themselves any kind of moral relationship or any known duties, could be neither good nor evil and had neither vices nor virtues, unless, taking these words in a physical sense, we call vices the qualities in the individual that can be injurious to his own preservation and virtues those which can contribute to it, in which case, it would be necessary to call the most virtuous the one who least resists the simple impulses of nature.
—Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on Inequality (via killereyez)
Albert Camus: “Nobody realizes that some people expend tremendous energy merely to be normal.”
“The philosophy of nature is one thing, the philosophy of value is quite another. Nothing but harm can come from confusing them. What we think good, what we should like, has no bearing whatever upon what is, which us the question for the philosophy of nature. On the other hand, we cannot be…